Toxic Impact Of Endosulfan On Gills Of Clarias Batrachus Linn


Organochloropesticidosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a, 6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxatipine 3-oxide) is one chlorinated hydrocarbon which is among the many most poisonous pesticides for aquatic life, particularly fish, and has due to this fact been registered as a precedence pollutant by the US Environmental Safety Company. Particularly in growing international locations, endosulfan is mostly used to manage jute, cotton, sugar cane and vegetable pests. As a consequence of agricultural exercise, endosulfan has been reported repeatedly in floor water and soil in growing and established international locations. It’s extra poisonous to the fish mannequin within the present examine, because the fish is a clay dweller and stays in touch with the soil for a very long time. Endosulfan is reasonably persistent within the soil setting with a reported common half-life of 50 days. Acute toxicity of endosulfan to fish was reported beforehand.

Earlier histopathological research of fish uncovered to pollution confirmed that fish organs are efficient indicators of water high quality. Gallen are essential organs in fish to carry out respiratory, osmoregulation, acid base stability and nitrogen separation. Fish manure can also be susceptible to water air pollution as a result of their massive floor space and outer area. For that reason, fish cutters are thought of to be essentially the most applicable indicators of water air pollution ranges. Many investigators have reported the histopathological modifications within the bile of varied fish species uncovered to numerous pesticides. Nevertheless, there was little info on the histopathological impression of endosulfan on fish castors. Due to this fact, it was determined to find out the histopathological results of fat in a catfish. Clarias batrachus Linn. uncovered chronically to endosulfan in present analysis.


Grownup fish with a median physique weight of 0.2 ± 0.03 kg and whole size of 20 ± 0.Four cm have been collected from the native market. The fish was transferred to the laboratory in oxygen containers. They have been acclimated in glass aquariums at a relentless temperature (24 ± 1 ° C) and pH 7.5 ± 0.Three for 7 days previous to the experiment. Aged faucet water is used for acclimation in addition to for the preparation of take a look at options. Water was repeatedly aerated. The fish was fed twice each day Tubifex tubifex. Technical grade endosulfan (Thiodan®, 33.70% endosulfan) was provided by Hoechst Co. India Ltd.

The fish have been divided into two teams and positioned in separate glass aquariums. Ten fish have been used for every group. Group I used to be uncovered to industrial formulations of endosulfan. The nominal concentrations examined have been 0.5 µg / L for endosulfan, which was the 1/12th fraction of the 96h LC50 worth. Group II was maintained in pesticide-free water to behave as a management. Half the quantity of take a look at water was renewed each 24 hours. The imply values ​​of water high quality information have been temperature 24 ± 1 ° C, pH 7.5 ± 0.3, dissolved oxygen 7.2 mg / L and whole hardness 168 mg / L as CaCO 3.

Clarias batrachus Uncovered to endosulfan confirmed no change in behavioral patterns and feeding exercise. Equally, development after publicity to endosulfan didn’t deteriorate, and along with mucus secretion, no macroscopically open indicators of pathology could possibly be recognized throughout dissection.

Each the experimental and management fish have been sacrificed each 15 days for 30 days. Instantly after capping, the bile was eliminated and dropped into aqueous Bouin's fluid. After fixing for 24 hours, the tissues have been dehydrated by a graded sequence of ethanol, purified in xylene and infiltrated into the paraffin. 4-6 µm thick sections have been lower on microtome and stained in hematoxylin eosin. Pathological lesions have been examined below optical microscope.


Endosulfan is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide and acaricide of the cycloidene subgroup which acts as a poison for quite a lot of bugs and mites upon contact. Though it may also be used as a wooden preservative, it’s primarily used on quite a lot of meals crops, together with tea, espresso, fruit and greens, in addition to on rice, cereals, corn, sorghum or different cereals (Extoxnet, 1996). It enters the air, water and soil throughout manufacture and use. It’s typically sprayed on crops and the spray can journey lengthy distances earlier than it lands on crops, soil or water. Endosulfan on crops often breaks down in a number of weeks, however sticks to soil particles and may take years to utterly break down. Upon hydrolysis, the anticipated half-lives of alpha and beta endosulfan isomers have been discovered to be 3.6 days and 1.7 days, respectively. Endosulfan doesn’t dissolve simply in water. In floor water it attaches to soil particles that float in water or hooked up to the bottom on the backside. It may be constructed up within the our bodies of animals dwelling in endosulfan-contaminated water (ATSDR, 2000). Endosulfan is reasonably persistent within the soil setting with a reported common half-life of 50 days.

EPA recommends that the quantity of endosulfan in rivers, lakes and streams doesn’t exceed 74 components per billion (74 ppb). The Meals and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn’t permit greater than 24 components per million (24 ppm) of endosulfan on dried tea. EPA doesn’t permit greater than 0.1 to 2 ppm of endosulfan on different uncooked agricultural merchandise. The industrial formulations of endosulfan are 1.88 occasions extra poisonous than its technical supplies.

The histopathological modifications have been evident in endosulfan-exposed samples and weren’t noticed within the management fish. After publicity, an extreme quantity of mucosa was noticed over the golden of reside specimens. It has been reported that the stress attributable to variations within the setting and pathological brokers induces the proliferation of mucous membranes and will increase the secretion.

Within the present examine, after 15 days of publicity to 0.5 µg / l endosulfan, epithelial necrosis, epithelial cells hypertrophy, deficiency of sclera, haemorrhage in major lamellae, respiratory epithelium and epithelial cell hypertrophy have been famous. The elevation of the epithelium, edema, epithelial necrosis, fusion of adjoining secondary lamellae and bleeding in major lamellae have been noticed within the fish pigs examined after 30 days of publicity to 0.5 μg / L.

Epithelial necrosis and rupture of gill epithelium are immediately dangerous results of irritants. The protection's defenses are extreme mucus secretion. Lifting of the epithelium, lamellar fusion and club-shaped lamellae may be protecting as a result of it reduces the quantity of uncovered juices. The histopathological modifications of gill can lead to hypoxia, respiratory failure issues with ionic and acid-base stability.


The Company for Poisonous Substances and Illnesses Register [ATSDR]. (2000). Toxicological profile of endosulfan. Replace. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Pat. Division of Well being and Human Providers, Public Well being.

Extension Toxicology Community [EXTOXNET] (1996). Pesticides Info Profiles, recordsdata maintained and archived at Oregon State College.